In 1742, Maryland's General Assembly separated the westernmost parts of the vast Piscataway (Broad Creek Church) parish to form the large “All Saints Parish”. In 1747, Maryland's Assembly provided for buying land and constructing the parish church on Carroll's Creek, as well as chapels of ease between the Monocacy and Seneca Creeks (which ultimately became Poolesville) and another between the Antietam and Cannogocheague Creeks (which became Hagerstown). In 1770, legislation provided for separating Eden (or Zion or St. Peter's) parishes as well as St. John's Parish, Hagerstown, but such never became effective before the American Revolution. In 1786, Maryland's General Assembly separated the westernmost parts of the congregation to create a new “Frederick Parish” named for Frederick Calvert, the last colonial governor of Maryland, and elevated the former chapel at Hagerstown, Maryland to the parish church.
The original All Saints building, built in 1750, was about four blocks away from the buildings constructed in the next century. In 1759, Rev. Thomas Bacon, former rector of St. Peter's Church in Talbot County, was appointed third "reader" of the parish, which by then was the colony's richest with an income of ₤400 sterling, but he was expected to first compile the laws of Maryland in Annapolis. This caused local consternation such that Rev. Bacon agreed to hire a priest to help him in the 100 mile by 30 mile parish, and moved to Frederick in 1762 upon receiving Governor Sharpe's assent to his appointment, which proved to be his last (he died in 1768).
Bacon's successor, Bennet Allen, the black sheep of a noted clerical family in England, technically served for seven years, but caused a scandal for his lack of learning as well as insistence upon holding another living (St. James Herring Bay) at the same time, contrary to colonial legislation but supposedly authorized by the Lord Proprietor. The vestry almost immediately locked Allen out of the church. Though he climbed in a window to claim the living, Allen soon fled to Philadelphia, hiring a curate to handle the lucrative parish long before the American Revolutionary War (during which he fled to England and was ultimately convicted of killing Lord Dulany in a duel).
During the rectorship of the Rev. George Bower on March 24, 1793, Bishop Thomas John Claggett administered his first confirmation on ten members of All Saints Church. Bishop Claggett being the first Episcopal bishop consecrated on American soil, these ten were the first to be confirmed by an American bishop.
As the population of Frederick grew in the late-18th and early-19th centuries, the need for a larger, more accessible church led the vestry of All Saints Parish to call for the construction of a new building on a lot purchased from Dr. Philip Thomas and Richard Potts on Court Street. The vestry raised subscriptions and held a lottery to obtain the funds to build the new church which was completed in 1814. Designed by Henry McCleery, the second All Saints' Church is an example of Federal design with Palladian influences. The first floor doors and window display a unique inter-woven design carved into their architraves. The second-floor windows are separated by stuccoed pilasters and a fanlight is centered in the pediment above. This new building was consecrated by Bishop Claggett on November 12, 1814.