He was born in Berthier, Lower Canada, the son of Jean-Baptiste Mousseau and Marie-Catherine Laferrière. In 1793, he married Marie-Anne Piette. Mousseau served as a captain in the militia. He generally supported the Parti patriote and voted in support of the Ninety-Two Resolutions. Mousseau died in Berthier at the age of 80.
His daughter Geneviève married Pierre-Eustache Dostaler. His grandson Omer Dostaler served in the provincial assembly and his grandsons Joseph-Alfred Mousseau and Joseph Octave Mousseau were members of the Canadian House of Commons.