As of the 2010 United States Census, the district had a population of 208,227, of whom 164,438 (79.0%) were of voting age. The racial makeup of the district was 190,556 (91.5%) White, 5,035 (2.4%) African American, 333 (0.2%) Native American, 4,761 (2.3%) Asian, 52 (0.0%) Pacific Islander, 4,275 (2.1%) from some other race, and 3,215 (1.5%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15,703 (7.5%) of the population. The district had 162,521 registered voters as of November 30, 2017, of whom 73,766 (45.4%) were registered as unaffiliated, 51,253 (31.5%) were registered as Republicans, 36,477 (22.4%) were registered as Democrats, and 1,025 (0.6%) were registered to other parties.
The district is represented for the 2018–2019 Legislative Session (Senate, General Assembly) in the State Senate by James W. Holzapfel (R, Toms River Township) and in the General Assembly by David W. Wolfe (R, Brick Township) and Gregory P. McGuckin (R, Toms River Township).
Following the 1964 Supreme Court decision in Reynolds v. Sims, legislative districts were required to be made as equal as possible with regards to total population. In the State Senate elections held in 1965, the 10th District consisted of Morris, Sussex, and Warren counties. For the remainder of the terms from the 1967 elections until the 1973 elections, it consisted of only Morris County with the district split into two Assembly districts (10A and 10B).
Two Senators were elected from this district in each of the regular Senate elections held. Republicans Thomas J. Hillery and Milton Woolfenden, Jr. were elected in 1965. Harry L. Sears and Joseph J. Maraziti (both Republican) won the 1967 election for a four-year term. Republicans Maraziti and Peter W. Thomas won the 1971 election, though both would not complete their term; Maraziti was elected to Congress in 1972 and resigned shortly before taking office in January 1973 and Thomas would resign on November 29, 1973 to become a Superior Court judge. Democrat Stephen B. Wiley would win the remainder of Maraziti's term in a 1973 special election.
For the 1967 and 1969 elections, Assembly District 10A was located in the southern portion of Morris County, stretching from Chester Township to Parsippany, and Assembly District 10B making up the remainder of the county. In the 1971 election, District 10B ran through the east-central portion of the county running from Morris Township northeast to Butler with a spur to Randolph Township and Dover. District 10A consisted of the "C" that was formed in the county. In all instances, two members from each district were sent to the Assembly in each election.